Some dogs and cats have short faces and pushed in or shortened noses. The skull has been genetically altered. Although these dogs and cats are considered to be cute, the changes in their faces can be very detrimental to their breathing.
The dog breeds affected include: Old English Bulldogs, Pugs, Pekingese, Shih Tzus, Lhasa Apsos, Boxers, Boston Terriers, French Bulldogs, Bull Mastiffs, and Shar Peis. The cat breed primarily affected is the Persian.
Dogs with brachycephalic syndrome will have all or some of the following abnormalities:
1) Stenotic nares- nostrils that are too small making it hard to breathe through the nose
2) An elongated soft palate which can block the larynx
3) A hypoplastic or very small trachea
4) Everted laryngeal saccules- swollen tissue by the vocal cords